Making lab-grown brain organoids ‘brainier’

Journal Reference: Momoko Watanabe, Jessie E. Buth, Jillian R. Haney, Neda Vishlaghi, Felix Turcios, Lubayna S. Elahi, Wen Gu, Caroline A. Pearson, Arinnae Kurdian, Natella V. Baliaouri, Amanda J. Collier, Osvaldo A. Miranda, Natassia Dunn, Di Chen, Shan Sabri, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Amander T. Clark, Kathrin Plath, Heather R. Christofk, Harley I. Kornblum, Michael … Read more

Study findings suggest association between exposure to air pollution — particularly in the first 5 years of life — and alterations in brain structure

Journal Reference: Anne-Claire Binter, Michelle S.W. Kusters, Michiel A. van den Dries, Lucia Alonso, Małgorzata J. Lubczyńska, Gerard Hoek, Tonya White, Carmen Iñiguez, Henning Tiemeier, Mònica Guxens. Air pollution, white matter microstructure, and brain volumes: Periods of susceptibility from pregnancy to preadolescence. Environmental Pollution, 2022; 120109 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120109 Tracts or bundles of cerebral white matter … Read more

Molecular changes in the brain in the aftermath of a traumatic event may help explain long-term susceptibility or resilience

Journal Reference: Jiwon Kim, Yun Lei, Xin-Yun Lu, Chung Sub Kim. Glucocorticoid-glucocorticoid receptor-HCN1 channels reduce neuronal excitability in dorsal hippocampal CA1 neurons. Molecular Psychiatry, 2022; DOI: 10.1038/s41380-022-01682-9 In response to a significant stressor and a subsequent surge of stress hormones, some rodent models experience the expected short-term increase in the excitability of neurons in areas … Read more

COVID-19 infections increase risk of long-term brain problems

Journal Reference: Evan Xu, Yan Xie, Ziyad Al-Aly. Long-term neurologic outcomes of COVID-19. Nature Medicine, 2022; DOI: 10.1038/s41591-022-02001-z Additionally, the post-COVID brain is associated with movement disorders, from tremors and involuntary muscle contractions to epileptic seizures, hearing and vision abnormalities, and balance and coordination difficulties as well as other symptoms similar to what is experienced … Read more

Researchers identify potential biomarker to distinguish two aggressive types of brain tumors in children

Journal Reference: Bongyong Lee, Keisuke Katsushima, Rudramani Pokhrel, Menglang Yuan, Stacie Stapleton, George Jallo, Robert J Wechsler-Reya, Charles G Eberhart, Animesh Ray, Ranjan J Perera. The long non-coding RNA SPRIGHTLY and its binding partner PTBP1 regulate exon 5 skipping of SMYD3 transcripts in group 4 medulloblastomas. Neuro-Oncology Advances, 2022; DOI: 10.1093/noajnl/vdac120 Four groups of medulloblastomas … Read more

How the brain develops: A new way to shed light on cognition

Journal Reference: Konstantin Volzhenin, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Guillaume Dumas. Multilevel development of cognitive abilities in an artificial neural network. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2022; 119 (39) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2201304119 The model, which made the cover of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), describes neural development over three hierarchical levels of … Read more

Discovery illuminates how Parkinson’s disease spreads in the brain

Journal Reference: Ying Xue Xie, Nima N. Naseri, Jasmine Fels, Parinati Kharel, Yoonmi Na, Diane Lane, Jacqueline Burré, Manu Sharma. Lysosomal exocytosis releases pathogenic α-synuclein species from neurons in synucleinopathy models. Nature Communications, 2022; 13 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-32625-1 During the process, called lysosomal exocytosis, neurons eject protein waste they cannot break down and recycle. The … Read more

Brain patterns reveal why elderly drivers are prone to mistaking the gas pedal for the brake pedal

Journal Reference: Nobuyuki Kawai, Ryuzaburo Nakata. Do older adults mistake the accelerator for the brake pedal?: Older adults employ greater prefrontal cortical activity during a bipedal/bimanual response-position selection task. Behavioural Brain Research, 2022; 432: 113976 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2022.113976 As reported in the media, accidents have increased in which older drivers mistakenly step on the accelerator instead … Read more

New clues into how the circadian clock helps the brain recover after injury

Journal Reference: Terry Dean, Aissia Victoria Koffi, Evan Goldstein, Javid Ghaemmaghami, Vittorio Gallo. Endogenous circadian clock machinery in cortical NG2-glia regulates cellular proliferation. eneuro, 2022; ENEURO.0110-22.2022 DOI: 10.1523/ENEURO.0110-22.2022 Released in the latest issue of eNeuro, the findings open new avenues of investigation for future TBI therapies. These injuries are currently managed only with supportive care … Read more

Scientists discover novel mechanism that causes rare brain disease

Journal Reference: Michelle C do Rosario, Guillermo Rodriguez Bey, Bruce Nmezi, Fang Liu, Talia Oranburg, Ana S A Cohen, Keith A Coffman, Maya R Brown, Kirill Kiselyov, Quinten Waisfisz, Myrthe T Flohil, Shahyan Siddiqui, Jill A Rosenfeld, Alejandro Iglesias, Katta Mohan Girisha, Nicole I Wolf, Quasar Saleem Padiath, Anju Shukla. Variants in the zinc transporter … Read more

Cool N Spicy